Would I be given a new passport with 10 whole years of validity and would there be another number on my new passport or will my old passport be re-issued by the State Department?
Your old passport will be changed completely, you will be given a completely different number and you will be given 10 whole years of validity if your 16 years old and above, but if you are 15 years old and below you will only be given 5 years of validity.
Can the passport expediting company help us learn if our passports are still in great quality or if it’s truly mutilated to make an early passport renewal?
Yes, the company can examine photos and scans of your damaged passport, they can tell you if it is badly and severely damaged that you require the mutilated passport replacement procedure, this is described here. If you want an early renewal, the US State Department will do the final determination. If they think that your passport is too damaged to renew, your application and passport will be given back to you and you would need to fill out the DS-11 Form and you would have to go to the Passport Acceptance Agent to get you application sealed in an official envelope.
Can I submit a passport for a damaged passport replacement even if it it’s torn into pieces?
You can still submit this, all you have to do is put all the pieces in a Zilpoc and put it in for submission.